Tianjin – Bolivian Communiqué in English
Communiqué by the Plurinational State of Bolivia
Cochabamba Proposals Will be Brought to Cancun
(October 10, 2010 – Tianjin, China) The proposals of the World People’s Conference on Climate Change and the Rights of Mother Earth have been maintained and expanded upon in the new negotiating text on climate change that emerged from the last round of negotiations in Tianjin, China.
Throughout the process in Tianjin, attempts were made to substitute the negotiating text, which contains the positions of all countries, with a text that would be limited to recognizing the principal elements of consensus for Cancun.
In some working groups, such as the one dealing with “various approaches for mitigation actions,” a proposal was presented which only contained the pro-market option. Following a long debate in which the right of all countries to have their proposals reflected in the negotiating text until a consensus is reached ultimately prevailed, a new text was agreed upon. That text now includes, among various options, the position of Cochabamba against the carbon market, and a passage asserting that the rights of nature must be recognized in mitigation actions.
Likewise, in the “shared vision” group, a proposal to consider the impacts of war on greenhouse gas emissions was introduced. Support was garnered among many delegations for a critique of market mechanisms related to forests and the need for a more integral view of forests.
In the last plenary, an intense debate took place due to the appearance of texts from facilitators of some groups that had not been previously discussed. It was made clear, though, that the entire negotiating text that emerged from Bonn, as well as the advances made in Tianjin, will continue to serve as the base for negotiations in Cancun.
The negotiating text that will be taken up in Cancun includes, among other elements, the following proposals from Cochabamba:
- Limit the temperature increase to 1°C.
- Reduce emissions by more than 50% for 2017.
- Rights of Mother Earth.
- Full respect for human rights and the rights of indigenous peoples and climate migrants.
- Formation of an International Climate Justice Tribunal.
- No new carbon markets.
- 6% of GDP in developed countries to finance climate change actions in developing countries.
- Lifting of barriers to intellectual property that facilitates technology transfer.
- No commodification of forests.
In Tianjin, advances were made in the institutional framework regarding financing, technology transfer and adaptation. However, on the principal issue of emissions reductions under the Kyoto Protocol, no advances were made with regard to the offers made by developed countries supporting a temperature increase of 3° to 4°C.
The situation ahead of Cancun is extremely worrying. There exists the very real danger that a text could be imposed at the last minute that was not negotiated and agreed upon by all parties. Similarly, there is the risk that the treatment of substantive themes such as emissions reductions and the maintenance of the Kyoto Protocol could be postponed until South Africa or beyond.
There is also enormous pressure by developed countries to give the green light to new carbon market mechanisms, particularly in relation to forests. In this context, the only way to advance toward a satisfactory result is by strengthening the organization and mobilization of social movements, environmentalists, indigenous peoples, women, intellectuals, artists, youth and the people as a whole behind the banner of the “People’s Agreement” of Cochabamba.